happy gudi padwa 2017

Happy-Gudi-Padwa

वर्षामागून वर्ष जाती,
बेत मनीचे तसेच राहती,
नव्या वर्षी नव्या भेटी,
नव्या क्षणाशी नवी नाती,
नवी पहाट तुमच्यासाठी,
शुभेच्छांची गाणी गाती!
Happy Gudi Padwa to you and your family.

 

 

 

 

 

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happy holi 2017

happy holi 2017 images

Har ang Holi! Har rang Holi! Har umang Holi! Happy Holi!

 

 

Wishing all subscribers and readers

happy holi and dhulivandan 2017!!

 

 

 

 

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happy mahashivratri 2017-market remain closed

happy mahashivratri 2017

 

Shivratri ke is pawan parv par

safalta ka damru sadev aapke oopar bajta rehe.

 

 

market remain closed on event of maha shivratri 2017, only mcx evening session will be carried on.

 

 

 

 

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Economic Survey 2017 report

the wire-Economic surveys assess the performance of the economy in the financial year. They identify the problems faced. They also give some inkling as to what the official thinking is about how these problems may be tackled in the following year and especially via policies in the Budget that is to follow. However, it is often the case that the Budget does not address these problems, or not in the way that may be presented in the survey.

Economic Survey 2017

Real rate of growth

The Economic Survey 2016-17 needs to ask and answer some crucial questions about the year that has just passed in which a major economic event occurred, namely, demonetisation. Field reports suggest that the wholesale trade is even now down by 20% to 30% which suggests that retail demand is still slack two and a half months after demonetisation was announced. Immediately after the announcement, wholesale trade was reported to have declined by anywhere between  60% to 80%. Such a sharp decline in trade and other reports from the field from industry suggest that the economy is facing recessionary conditions. Output and investment are reported to have contracted and unemployment has increased especially in the unorganised sector. While the organised sector is less affected the unorganised sector has been hit badly. The latter employs 94% of the workforce and produces about 45% of the output.

Yet, the Economic Survey projects a growth rate for 2016-17 of 6.5%. How is this arrived at if there has been negative growth in large parts of the economy since November 2016? The survey itself admits that the unorganised sector data are not directly captured in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) because it does not directly measure this sector’s contribution and assumes it to be in proportion to that in the organised sector. Demonetisation has led to a delinking of the growth rates of the two sectors, so that IIP does not anymore reflect the growth rate of industry.

Under different assumptions – specifically about the impact on the organised and the unorganised sectors of the economy since November 2016 – it can be shown that the rate of growth of the economy would drop sharply from 7% pre November 2016 to about 2%, 0% or even negative for the year as a whole. Just how low the growth may be is hard to estimate at present due to the limited data available.

The problem is further compounded when it comes to predicting the rate of growth for the coming year, 2017-18. What should the projection be based on? The average of the previous year (2016-17) or the trend from November 2016 when the big shock to the economy was delivered? The average of very disparate numbers is not the representative number to base one’s projection. Further, the conditions that prevailed before November 2016 were very different from those after that month. Hence they are no more relevant for projecting the numbers.

Irreversibilites have set in

It is suggested by the survey that the situation of the economy would reverse quickly once cash shortage is over in a few months’ time. However, it is not taking into account the irreversibilities that the economy encounters whenever there is a large shock. An economy is about society and people and not about some science experiment where one can replicate conditions for an experiment.

When employment falls, profits fall and investments are cut back. That is when irreversibilities arise. After November 8, 2016, demand was hit all round, production slowed down, profits fell and all of that led to unemployment and decline in investments which leads to long-term effects. Even if the note shortage becomes less, as it is bound to happen, demand does not revive on its own and the cycle does not reverse.

Clearly, the government is not willing to admit (for political reasons) that there has been major pain in the economy and therefore, it is still talking of a 6.5-7.5% rate of growth. This means that it is planning on the basis of incorrect data. If the Budget is also based on these incorrect figures and understanding of what is happening in the economy, there will be serious consequences for the economy. It also implies that the government will not do what is required to be done to overcome the current problems. This could further deepen the recession in the economy and make the problem worse.

A conservative fiscal stance

The survey has talked of a cautious fiscal stance. What is forgotten is that in 2008, when the economy was hit by the global recession, what saved the day for India was a rapid increase in the fiscal deficit and massive expenditures in rural areas under various schemes. India was not alone in that. All the countries in the world boosted their public expenditures by boosting the deficit in the budget. China in fact went in for a $600 billion rural infrastructure programme and so on. In the present situation of recessionary conditions, a cautious stance would lead to a decline in demand since tax revenue would not be buoyant given the slowdown in the economy.

The survey also talks of giving tax concessions to the corporates by accelerating the promised cut in their tax rates. There has also been talk of giving concessions to the middle class and the rich by lowering income tax rates. These would lead to a fall in the tax collection in the present situation of slowdown. This would mean that either the fiscal deficit would rise or there would be cut back in expenditures. The former is ruled out by the survey under the rubric of a fiscally conservative stance and the latter can only deepen recessionary conditions. The Budget therefore is in a pincer. The government has to make bold choices but the survey rules that out.

The black economy, if tackled effectively, could have given additional resources for the Budget. However, the Survey does not give a lead as to how that could happen. Demonetisation has not managed to unearth any major chunk of the black economy or make it come into the formal economy.

The Survey suggests that stamp duties should be lowered in the hope that black income generation in real estate would decline. However, this is based on the false premise that real estate generates black income. Actually, it circulates black money since the incomes earned here are in the nature of `transfer incomes’ where assets change hand and production does not take place. Analytically, this is not understood in the Survey so lowering of stamp duties would not deter black income generation in real estate.

How long will the pain last?

The pain related to cash shortage maybe getting less (although rural areas are still hurting more) but the bigger problem now is the recession. The public is curious to know how much black money demonetisation unearthed but the government is not providing any answer to this as yet.  The irony is that those who never generated black incomes have faced all the pain while those who generate black incomes and have black money have escaped through various devices.  They have largely managed to recycle their old notes into new notes in connivance with the corrupt in the system. No wonder according to unofficial reports, most of the old notes have come back into the banking system.

It also needs to be kept in mind that cash does not automatically mean black money. A lot of cash is used in the white economy for purposes of transactions, working capital by businesses and also as precautionary motive for any illness or an emergency. The banks cannot declare the money deposited with them as black. The income tax department has to do that but after following procedures. They can ask for the source of the cash deposited in a bank and that may lead to some past concealed income but it is usually difficult to establish that.

Often, the cash is explained away by businesses as working capital. If the money is in the account of poor persons and if they claim it to be their money, there is little that the income tax officer can do. Most of these sums are so small that they would be below the taxable limit and not worth pursuing for the department. Those who have misused the accounts of the poor usually have them under their thumb so they cannot double cross without facing social consequences or losing their job. The cost would not be worth the double cross.

Conclusion

The survey does not lift the mist of confusion on the macro situation of the country and does not provide clarity on what happened due to the big shock to the economy on November 8, 2016. It is in a state of denial and that is what is creating a problem for the economy. The conservative fiscal stance being proposed will only lead to an aggravation of the problems confronting the economy. The government and the country are trapped because demonetisation was ill-advised. It does not check the black economy but the government pretends that it does. It is causing the Indian economy to slip into a recession and that is hurting everyone and especially the poor who had nothing to do with black income generation. But the pain of the marginalised (not captured by the Index of Industrial Production) is far greater than can be ameliorated by the few sops that are offered to them.

One needs to admit the problem to solve it and that is not forthcoming in the Economic Survey 2017.

Union Budget 2017: What to expect ?

New Delhi: As Finance Minister Arun Jaitley presents his third full-fledged Budget on Wednesday, all eyes will be on him with high expectations especially in the wake of demonetisation and the slowing growth rate.

Union Budget 2017
Be it tax exemption, hiking the transport allowances, increasing the rebate cap on home loans, giving subsidies to farmers or addressing the issue of women's and senior citizens' taxation, the decision of the Finance Minister will be closely watched by one and all.

Here are the major expectations:

1) Expectations of salaried class

Here are some changes the salaried classes expect in this year’s Budget.

The common man expects the income tax limit to be increased from prevailing Rs 250,000 to Rs 400,000. This would help people save more. Additionally, increase in tax limit will kickstart savings which will ultimately lead to increase in investment and liquidity in the system.

The working women’s contribution to the national economy is also increasing slowly but steadily. As an incentive, tax exemption for them too needs to be raised to at least Rs 5 lakh.

Currently, the peak tax rate of 30% is made applicable over an income of Rs 10 lakhs for individual taxpayers. However, the income level on which peak rate is applied in other countries is significantly higher. Hence, there is a need for further raising the income level on which the peak tax rate would trigger, to make the same compatible with the international standards.

Here are the expected revised tax slabs for individual taxpayers.

Upto Rs 4 lakhs -Nil

Rs 5-10 lakhs- 10%

Rs 10-20 lakhs- 20%

Beyond Rs 20 lakhs -30%

Deduction under Section 80C

At present consolidated deduction of Rs 1.5 lakh is allowed on all long term and short term serving instruments, including provident fund, pension funds, and equity linked savings scheme etc.

Exemption limits of allowances such as children education allowance, transport allowance, medical allowance etc are very low. So expectations are that the allowances exempted from tax are increased along with rise in exemption limits under Sections 80C from the present Rs 1.5 lakh to at least Rs 2.5 lakh.

Hiking the cap on interest on home loan

We have great expectations from this budget, starting with support to incentivize affordable housing and permit higher tax exemption limits on interest and principal repayments for home buyers.

The deduction for interest on housing loans needs to increase from the current limit of Rs 2,00,000 considering the significant rise in rates for residential properties over the past few years. To provide relief to the tax payer this limit should be increased to at least Rs 3 lakh. This will give impetus to the housing industry, thus boosting the economy in the long run.

2) Expectations of home buyers

The deduction available under section 24 of the Act is to a maximum limit of Rs 2,00,000/- for interest on loan taken for acquisition/construction of self-occupied house property. Given the rising interest rates and the increase in property prices and also to spur the demand for housing, it is recommended the exemption should be increased to at least Rs 3,00,000/- per annum.

In the case of home loan repayments, the ceiling under tax benefits is capped at Rs 1,50,000/- for principal paid, which is very less, particularly when home loan principal repayments are clubbed with other tax saving instruments.

Therefore, the deduction for principal repayment should be considered for a separate/standalone tax exemption, rather than being clubbed under Section 80C of the Act.

3) Expectations of retail investors

Deduction in respect of Rajiv Gandhi Equity Savings Scheme: The Rajiv Gandhi Equity Savings Scheme (RGESS) is a tax saving scheme that was announced in the 2012-13 Union Budget aimed at first time retail investors. The scheme is aimed at encouraging the flow of savings of small investors in the domestic capital market, and presents investors with tax benefits provisioned under a new section, 80CCG in the Income Tax Act, 1961. It is recommended to raise the income ceiling to Rs 25 lakh as compared to Rs 12 lakh at present.

To attract new investors into the equity markets, RGESS needs to be simplified and the entry gates should be widened. Also, the Association of mutual funds in India (Amfi) made a proposal to extend the tax benefits available under RGESS to all equity fund investors.

Also, all open-ended equity and balanced funds should be RGESS compliant schemes. Application forms should have the option “RGESS”.

Taxation of National Pension Scheme

In order to encourage taxpayers to make voluntary higher contributions towards NPS, it should be made more tax-friendly as the objective of this scheme is to create a pensionable society. Accordingly, the tax regime of NPS should be made Exempt, Exempt, Exempt (EEE) from the current EET regime on the lines of other retirement schemes like Employee Provident Fund and Public Provident Fund.

Without prejudice to above, the benefit of 40 percent exemption for withdrawal from National Pension Scheme (NPS) by any employee be extended to withdrawals by any person and not just employees. It is suggested the sub-section (12A) of section 10 of the Act providing for exemption of 40% of payment from NPS Trust to “an employee” on closure of account or opting out of pension scheme, may be modified to allow such exemption to payment from the NPS Trust to “an individual”, since exemption under the said clause is available in respect of withdrawals from NPS by self-employed individuals also.

4) Expectations of Housewives

- The housewives expect government to come up with good measures to keep the ever increasing inflation in check.

- The price of kitchen supply has shot up in the past decade. The housewives expect that the finance minister will bring measures to reduce them.

- There is also expectation that price of gold, which has shown considerable rise in last few years comes down. Though gold is a good hedge for crisis, housewives expect that the price should come down so that they can buy more.

- The constant demand to keep Petrol and diesel rates under reasonable limits is also one of the major expectations of the housewives. Although it is also true that with fuel deregulation, there is nothing much that can be done.

5) Expectations of senior citizens

Tax Exemption Limit

Senior citizens expect that more room should be given for them in tax rebate. An increase in the exemption limit for the senior citizens (above 60 years), which currently stands at Rs 300,000 to at least Rs 500,000 would give a boost to their retirement funds.

Similarly, very senior citizens (above 80 years) who do not come under tax bracket for earnings up to Rs 5 lakh are also expecting a further increase in the exemption limit.

Reimbursement of Medical Expenditure

Any sum paid by the employer in respect of any expenditure incurred by the employee on the medical treatment of self/ family is currently exempt from tax, to the extent of Rs 15,000 per annum. The exemption in respect of expenditure on medical reimbursements/ hospitalization expenditure in approved hospitals should also be extended to retired employees.

6) Expectations of students

Students are pinning their hopes high on the Union Budget for 2017-18 and expecting that exemptions against education loans can be extended to 10 years from the currently allowed 8 years.

They hope that there will be no further rise in service tax otherwise educational institutions will increase their fees.

To make domestic higher education more affordable, the government must take adequate steps to decrease education loan rates across the board.

Another area needs the attention of the finance ministry. Focus of government must be on issues like hostel fees, which should be decreased, and number of seats, which should be increased in universities.

But most of all, the number of govt universities must be increased to cater to the rising number of students seeking higher education.

Budget 2017 is an opportunity for the government to concentrate on improving school education for over 260.5 million children who enrolled in elementary and secondary school in 2015-16 -- children who will form the core of Indias working-age population, one billion by 2030, the largest in the world, Pratham, an education nonprofit has said.

The school education and literacy budget increased 3.2 percent in 2016-17, compared to the 2015-16 revised budget estimates.

Along with increasing the amount spent on education, the budget also needs to be restructured to focus on learning outcomes, and monitoring of quality.

7) Expectations of Young India

Curtailment of education fees, cheaper electronic gadgets and more focus on jobs are some of the expectations Young India has from the budget for fiscal 2017-18 that Finance Minister Arun Jaitley will table in parliament on Wednesday.

Many students and professionals whom news agency IANS spoke with said they wanted a youth-oriented budget that will help underprivileged students pursue higher studies and cheaper electronic gadgets to make the government`s Digital India initiative a success in a country where almost 47.8 percent of population is currently aged below 29.

With India set to account for 20 percent of the world`s workforce in the next three years, many young men and women wanted the government to largely focus its resources on how to positively channelise the energy of the youth and make them more productive.

8) Expectations of Insurance industry

In order to increase insurance penetration in India, the insurance industry is seeking higher tax exemptions in the upcoming budget.The insurance industry is seeking higher tax exemptions, focus on e-payment and compulsory home insurance.

"We expect the Budget to spur consumption with a lower tax regime and higher tax-free slabs coupled with higher infrastructure spends," Edelweiss Tokio Life Insurance Managing Director and CEO Deepak Mittal.

Gold rises due to latest Trump moves

reuters-Gold climbed on Tuesday to its highest in nearly a week as tough travel restrictions by U.S. President Donald Trump unnerved markets and prompted investors to buy bullion as risk insurance.

Spot gold gained 0.8 percent to $1,204.76 an ounce by 1320 GMT, its highest since Jan. 25. U.S. gold futures rose by 0.9 percent to $1,203.90.

Gold Bullion

The dollar and stock markets fell in the wake of Trump's sacking of top U.S. government lawyer Sally Yates, who refused to defend his stringent curbs on travel from seven Muslim-majority nations.

"Clearly Trump remains the main driver for gold. He has really turned from being a bit of a foe of gold to a friend with the uncertainty of his policies," said Ole Hansen, head of commodity strategy at Saxo Bank in Copenhagen.

"We're not getting any news on fiscal spending and tax cuts. Instead, we're hearing about protectionism and a tough stance on immigration. That's unnerving the market."

A weaker dollar supported bullion, though traders were turning their attention to a two-day Federal Reserve meeting starting later in the day, hoping for clues on the outlook for U.S. interest rates.

Higher rates could strengthen the U.S. currency, making dollar-denominated gold more expensive for holders of other currencies, potentially dampening demand.

The dollar index, which measures the greenback against a basket of currencies, was down about half a percent and on track for a monthly fall of more than 2 percent - its worst start to the year since the financial crisis.

"There could be some growth challenges if the (travel) ban is prolonged. So the current risk aversion (driving gold markets) comes as no surprise," said OCBC analyst Barnabas Gan.

MKS PAMP Group trader Sam Laughlin, meanwhile, said that the firing of Sally Yates provided the impetus for gold to break through $1,200.

Commerzbank said in a note that gold was also finding support from expectation of higher euro zone inflation.

Data from the European statistics office on Tuesday showed that euro zone inflation jumped by more than expected in January, boosted by a surge in energy prices as economic growth accelerated and unemployment fell to its lowest in more than seven years.


"Silver is holding up reasonablly well. It's been a better performer this month, albeit by a couple of percent, relative to gold," Saxo Bank's Hansen said.

This was mainly helped by gains in base metals, which have prompted funds to take long positions since silver also has industrial properties, Hansen added.

Platinum rose 0.7 percent to $992.20 while palladium was up 1.5 percent at $750.90.

The BOJ left monetary policy unchanged

business insider -The Bank of Japan (BoJ) left monetary policy unchanged at the conclusion of its January meeting, a decision that was almost unilaterally expected by financial markets.

Bank of Japan (BoJ) left monetary policy unchanged
Voting 7-2, the bank decided to retain its quantitative and qualitative monetary easing (QQE) with yield curve control program, keeping interest rates unchanged at 0.1% while pledging to purchase Japanese government bonds (JGB) so that 10-year JGB yields will remain at around zero percent.
It said that it will conduct JGB purchases at an annual pace of around 80 trillion yen with the aim "to achieve the target level of the long-term interest rate specified by the guideline", in this case 0%.
The bank also left its annual purchases of exchange traded funds, Japan real estate investment trusts and corporate paper and bonds unchanged at about 6 trillion yen, 90 billion yen and 5.4 trillion respectively.
As it has now done for several meetings, it pledged to continue with its QQE with yield curve control program for "as long as it is necessary" to achieve its inflation target of 2% "in a stable manner".


The decision to leave monetary policy settings unchanged came despite an upgrade to the bank’s real GDP growth forecasts for the next two financial years, an outcome that was also widely expected by financial markets.
The BOJ now sees real GDP growth of 1.5% in the 2017 fiscal year, up from its previous forecast of 1.3% offered in November last year, with growth in the 2018 fiscal year now expected to come in at 1.1%, 20 basis more than it’s previous assessment.
However, despite those upward revisions to its GDP forecasts, the BoJ left its forecasts for core consumer price inflation (CPI), which excludes the effect of fresh food prices, unchanged over the same period.


Core CPI is expected to accelerate to 1.5% in the next financial year, before rising further to 1.7% in fiscal year 2018.
Both remain below the bank’s 2% inflation target, although the bank still sees this being reached around fiscal year 2018.
BOJ Jan 2017 forecasts
Perhaps explaining the caution towards its inflation forecasts, aside from consistently undershooting the bank’s forecasts in recent years, the BoJ said that momentum towards achieving its price stability target are not yet "sufficiently firm", suggesting that developments in prices continues to warrant "careful attention".
It also said that risks for both its GDP and inflation forecasts remain to the downside.

"With regard to to the outlook for economic activity, risks are skewed to the downside, particularly those regarding developments in overseas economies," the bank said.


It also cited risks from overseas economies and developments in medium-to-long term inflation expectations as downside risks to its inflation forecasts.
In particular, the BoJ said that there was uncertainty surrounding the outlook for both the US and Chinese economies, the largest in the world, along with the European Union following the UK Brexit vote, creating both upside and downside risks.
Along with uncertainty over how those major economies will perform, it also said that developments in currency markets and international commodity prices "may lead prices to deviate either upward or downward from the baseline scenario".
Despite delivering few surprises, Japanese stocks have extended earlier losses following the BoJ announcement with the TOPIX currently trading down 1.4%.
That’s likely in response to continued strength in the Japanese yen with the USD/JPY currently trading down 0.2% at 113.53, having fallen to as low as 113.25 in the immediate aftermath of the BoJ announcement.

happy republic day 2017 to all subscribers

happy republic day 2017

On this day think of our past &

Try to built better future for all of us..

It is a duty of all of us!!

I am proud to be an Indian.

Happy Republic Day

 

 

NSE, BSE, mcx and currency markets will remain closed on event of 68th republic day of India.

शेअर बाजारांचा इतिहास

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स्टॉक मार्केट ची व्याख्या

स्टॉक मार्केट वा इक्विटी मार्केट अथवा शेयर बाजार हि एक संस्थेप्रमाणे काम करते जेथे खरीददार आणि विक्रेता कंपनीच्या शेअर अथवा समभागांची आणि इतर आर्थिक साधनांची घेवाण-देवाण करतात. भूतकाळात शेअर्स हे भौतिक सर्टिफिकेटच्या स्वरुपात खरीदी-विक्री होत पण आता डीजीटल युगात हे सर्व काम शेअर बाजारात आभासी स्वरुपात आभासी मंचावर होते. आज पण वास्तविक स्वरुपात शेअर्स ची देवाण-घेवाण होते परंतु ते आता फक्त मोठ्या आर्थिक संस्था , निवेश बँका आणि मोठे व्यापारीच करतात.

२०१२ संपता संपता जागतिक शेअर बाजाराचे एकूण भांडवल हे जवळपास ५५ लाख अब्ज डॉलर ऐवडे होते. त्यामध्ये अमिरीकन शेअर बाजाराचा ३४% हिस्सा होता तर जपान आणि इंग्लंडच्या बाजाराचा ६% सहभाग होता. जगामध्ये जवळपास ६० शेअर बाजार आहेत आणि त्याचे भांडवल एकत्र केले तर ते जवळपास ६९ लाख अब्ज डॉलर इतके भरेल. त्यातल्या १६ शेअर बाजारांचे भांडवल हे १ लाख अब्ज डॉलर पेक्षा जास्त आहे आणि ते जवळपास विश्व बाजाराचा ८७% हिस्सा व्यापतात. हे मुख्य शेअर बाजार ३ खंडानुसार विभागले गेले असून, आणि ते आहेत आशियायी, युरोपिअन आणि अमिरीकन शेअर बाजार.

Stock exchange in India

भारतीय शेअर बाजार

भारतात मुख्यतः २ शेअर विनिमय संस्था आहेत. त्या म्हणजे NSE ( नॅशनल स्टॉक एक्स्चेंज ) आणि BSE ( बॉम्बे स्टॉक एक्सचेंज ). ह्याच दोन एक्सचेंजवर सर्वाधिक ट्रेडिंग होते. बॉम्बे स्टॉक एक्सचेंज हे १८७५ मध्ये कार्यान्वित झाले तर नॅशनल स्टॉक एक्स्चेंज हे १९९२ मध्ये स्थापन झाले व १९९४ ला त्यामध्ये ट्रेडिंगला सुरुवात झाली.

bse आणि nse दोन्ही वेग-वेगळे एक्सचेंजेस आहेत पण त्याची कार्यपद्धती, कार्य वेळ, सेटलमेंट पद्धत इत्यादी सर्व जवळपास सारखे आहेत. BSE अंदाजे ४७०० कंपन्या लिस्टेड आहेत तर हा आकडा NSE साठी १२०० च्या वर आहे. BSE च्या मुख्य ५०० कंपन्या बाजाराचा ९०% भांडवल भाग गृहीत करतात बाकी १०% शेअर्स हे कमी संख्येने ट्रेड होतात.

How stock exchange works

शेअर बाजारची कार्यप्रणाली

शेअर बाजारात कंपन्या आप-आपले समभाग वा शेअर्स विकून भांडवल उभे करतात. या भांडवलचा उपयोग ते व्यवसाय वाढवण्यासाठी अथवा कर्ज कमी करण्यासाठी करतात. अधिकतम कंपन्या भांडवल उभारण्याचा हाच रस्ता निवडतात आणि प्राथमिक सार्वजानिक प्रस्तावाद्वारे ( IPO ) ते त्यांचे शेअर्स मार्केट मध्ये सामन्य नागरिकांना विकून पैसा गोळा करतात. कारण कर्ज घेवून त्यावर अधिक व्याज भरण्यापेक्षा कंपन्या कंपनीतील काही हिस्सा विकून पैसा गोळा करून त्याचा आधीचे कर्ज कामीकरण्यासाठी अथवा व्यवसाय विस्तारासाठी उपयोग करतात. हा रस्ता त्यांचासाठी साधा आणि सरळ असतो. कधी कधी कंपन्या अधिकचे कर्ज कमी करण्यासाठी FPO ( पुढील सार्वजनिक प्रस्ताव ) बाजारात आणतात. जे लोग कंपन्याचे शेअर्स खरीदी करतात ते त्या कंपनीचे त्या प्रमाणात भागीदार बनतात. जर कंपनीला नफा झाला तर कंपनी त्यांना तो नफा लाभांश स्वरुपात वाटते. कंपनीचा नफा वाढत राहिला वा कंपनी चा चांगल्या प्रकारे व्यवसाय करत असेल तर कंपनीच्या शेअर्स ची मागणी वाढून त्यांचा भाव वधारतो.

IPO द्वारा कंपनी शेअर बाजारात लिस्ट वा सामील होते आणि त्यानंतर तिच्या शेअर्स मध्ये ट्रेडिंगला सुरुवात होते. बाजार वेळेत एखादी व्यक्ती कितीही वेळेस ह्या शेअर्स मध्ये खरीदी अथवा विक्री करू शकते. बाजारात ट्रेडिंग घडून येण्यासाठी खरीददार आणि विक्रेता ह्या दोघांची गरज असते त्याशिवाय सौदा घडून येवूच शकत नाही. दोघांमध्ये ज्या भावात ट्रेडिंग घडून येते त्याला “ सौदा ” असे म्हणतात. मार्केट मध्ये सौदे हे लगातार वेगवेगळ्या भावाला पडत असतात त्यचे कारण म्हणजे मागणी आणि पुरवठा यातील असमतोल, बाजाराला प्रभावित करणाऱ्या बातम्या, बाजाराची दिशा आणि दशा. त्यामुळेच शेअर्स भाव हे कधी वर तर कधी खाली दिसून येतात.

या सर्व गोष्टीमुळे बाजार दिवसेंदिवस अधिक जटील आणि अस्थिर होत आहेत पण टेक्नोलॉजीमुळे ट्रेडिंग हि अधिक सुलभ आणि स्वस्त होत आहे. सरळ शब्दात स्टॉक मार्केट मध्ये शेअर्सची खरीदी आणि विक्री होते.

History of stock exchange in India

भारतीय शेअर बाजाराचा इतिहास

भारतात पहिला संघटीत शेअर बाजार १८७५ मध्ये मुंबईमध्ये स्थापन झाला जो कि आशियातील सर्वात जुना बाजार आहे. १८९४ मध्ये कापड मिलच्या शेअर ट्रेडिंग साठी अहमदाबाद शेअर एक्सचेंज ची सुरुवात करण्यात आली. १९०८मध्ये कलकत्ता स्टॉक एक्सचेंज ची स्थापना जूट अंड संबधित गोष्टीच्या कंपनीच्या शेअर ट्रेडिंग साठी सुरुवात करण्यात आली. मद्रास स्टॉक एक्सचेंज ची स्थापना १९२० मध्ये झाली. भारतात जवळपास २४ स्टॉक एक्सचेंज होते आणि त्यापैकी २१ स्टॉक एक्सचेंजची स्थापना प्रादेशिक उद्योग धंद्यांना चालना मिळावी यासाठी करण्यात आली. सुधारणा प्रणालीतून २ मुख्य एक्सचेंज अस्तितवात आले ते म्हणजे नॅशनल स्टॉक एक्सचेंज (NSE) आणि ओवर द काउंटर एक्सचेंज ऑफ़ इंडिया (OICEI) ज्याचे काम आणि प्रसार हा राष्ट्रव्यापी आहे.

स्टॉक एक्सचेंज हे गवर्निंग बोर्ड व कार्यकारी मुख्य अधिकारी चालवतात व नियंत्रित करतात. वित्त मंत्रालय ह्या दोघांना अधिनियमित आणि नियंत्रित करते. सेबी ची स्थापना १९८८मध्ये सरकारतर्फे करण्यात आली जी कि एक मार्केट रेगुलेटर व आर्थिक व्यापार संबंधी उद्योग व संस्था नियंत्रित व अधिनियमित करण्याचे काम करते.

Stock market history

शेअर बाजारांचा वैश्विक इतिहास

१२व्या शतकात राजाचे मंत्री व अधिकारी हे शेतकऱ्यांना कर्ज वाटप आणि त्यांचे नियमन करीत असत. ह्या व्यक्ती हे करत असताना ह्या कामच्या बदल्यात फी आकारात आणि त्यामुळेच यांना जगातील “प्रथम दलाल” संबोधले जाते.

एक आख्यायिका अशी पण आहे कि बेल्जियम देशाच्या ब्रुज शहरात कमोडिटी ट्रेडर्स वैन डे बुर्जे ह्याच्या घरी मिटिंग करण्यासाठी जमा होत आणि त्यातूनच १४०९मध्ये “ बुर्जे बौर्से ” ह्या जागेची स्थापना झाली. ह्याच प्रकारची मीटिंग हीच व्यक्ती बेल्जियम च्या अन्तवेर्प शहरात घडवून आणत जे कि त्यावेळचे सर्वाधिक व्यापारी व व्यापार असलेले शहर होते. त्यातूनच हि जागा कमोडीटी ट्रेडिंग करण्याची जागा बनून राहिली. हि बातमी आजूबाजूच्या शहरात व राज्यात पसरून त्याठिकाणी सुद्धा अशी केंद्रे सुरु झाली ज्यांना “बेउर्जें” म्हणत.

१३व्या शतकात वैटिकन बँक अधिकारी सरकारी सिक्योरिटीज मध्ये ट्रेडिंग करायचे. १३५१ मध्ये सरकारने काही जणांवर बंदी लादली कारण ते अफवा पसरवून सरकारी फंड्स ची किमत कमी करण्याचे षड्यंत्र करत होते. हे बघून १४व्या शतकात इतर शहरे जसे कि पिसा , जेनोआ, वेरोना व फ्लोरेंस यांनी सुद्धा सरकारी सिक्योरिटीज मध्ये ट्रेडिंग ची सुरुवात केली. हे यामुळे शक्य झाले कारण ह्या शहरांवर व राज्यांवर राजाचा हुकुम नव्हता तर ती जनपरिषद मार्फत चालवली जायची. मार्केट मध्ये शेअर्स उतरवणारी पहेली कंपनी हि इटालीयन होती. हीच परम्परा इंग्लंड व आजूबाजूच्या देशात १६व्या शतकापर्यंत पोहचली.

१६०२ मध्ये डच इस्ट इंडिया कंपनी जी कि एक जॉइंट स्टॉक कंपनी होती व जिने फिक्स कैपिटल शेयर मार्केट मध्ये उतरवले होते, त्यामुळेच ह्या कंपनीचे शेअर्स विविध एक्सचेंजावर एकाच वेळेस ट्रेड होवू शकत होते. ह्याचमुळे एम्स्टर्डम एक्सचेंज वर ऑप्शन आणि इतर डेरीवेटीव ट्रेडिंग ची सुरुवात झाली. डच ट्रेडर्सनी “शोर्ट सेलिंग” ची संकल्पना अस्तीत्वात आणली. आज जगातील प्रत्येक विकसित व विकानसील देशात शेअर बाजाराचे अस्तित्व आहे. जगामध्ये अमेरिका,इंग्लंड, जपान, भारत ,चीन,कॅनडा व जर्मनी चे शेअर बाजार सर्वात मोठे बाजार म्हणून ओळखले जातात.

History of the American stock market

अमिरीकेच्या शेअर बाजाराचा इतिहास

अमेरिकन स्टॉक एक्सचेंज ( AMEX ) ची सुरुवात सन १८०० मध्ये झाली. १९२१ पर्यंत ह्या एक्सचेंज ला “कर्ब एक्सचेंज” म्हणून सुद्धा ओळखले जायचे. ह्या एक्सचेंज आधिकारिक स्थापना १९२१ मध्ये झाली जेव्हा यांचे स्थानातरण ट्रिनिटी चर्च जवळील इमारतीत झाले. पण याची घोषणा १९५३ पर्यंत झाली नव्हती. नोव्हेंबर १९९८ ला ह्या एक्सचेंजचे विलानीकरण होवून “नैस्डेक-एमेक्स एक्सचेंज” ची स्थापना झाली.

ऑक्टोबर २००८ मध्ये अमेरिकन स्टॉक एक्सचेंज चे अधिग्रहण NYSE euronext ने केले. तेव्हापासून हळूहळू सर्व माहिती व कामे NYSE एक्सचेंजवर हलवून AMEX बंद करण्यात आले. जानेवारी २००९मध्ये याचे आधिकारिक नामांकरण NYSE AMEX झालेले आहे.

स्टॉक मार्केट का इतिहास हिंदी में

154186232

स्टॉक मार्केट की व्याख्या

स्टॉक मार्केट व इक्विटी मार्केट अथवा शेयर बाज़ार एक संस्था की तरह होता है जहा ख़रीददार और बिचौलिए शेयर्स व अन्य आर्थिक साधनों की लेंन-देंन करते है | पुराने दिनों में शेयर्स का लेंन देंन भौतिक सर्टिफिकेट के स्वरुप में होता था मगर नयी टेक्नोलॉजी की वजह से वो अब लगभग आभासी मंच से होने लगा है | शेयर ट्रेडिंग वास्तविक स्वरुप में भी होती है मगर वो अब बड़ी आर्थिक संस्थाए, बैंक और बड़े व्यापारी ही करते है |
२०१२ के ख़त्म होते होते , जागतिक शेयर बाज़ार का पूंजीकरण लगभग ५५ लाख अरब था | उसमे अमिरीकी मार्केट का हिस्सा ३४% था, जापान और यूके का सहभाग ६% के करीब था |
विश्व में लगभग ६० शेयर बाज़ार है और उनकी पूंजी एकत्रित की जाये तो वो लगभग ६९ लाख अरब की करीब आएगी. उसमे से प्रमुख १६ बाज़ार का पूंजीकरण १ लाख अरब से जादा है और उनका आरती विश्व बाज़ार में हिस्सा करीब ८७% के करीब है | इन १६ मुख्य बाजारों को तिन खंडो के हिसाब से आक़ा जाता है और वो है आशियाई बाज़ार , यूरोपियन बाज़ार और उत्तरी अमिरीकी बाज़ार |
Stock exchange in India

भारतीय शेयर बाज़ार

भारत में मुख्य दो शेयर विनिमय संस्थाए है, एक है नेशनल स्टॉक एक्सचेंज (NSE) व दूसरा है बॉम्बे स्टॉक एक्सचेंज (BSE). इन्ही दो एक्सचेंजो में सर्वाधिक शेयर व्यपार होता है | बॉम्बे स्टॉक एक्सचेंज १८७५ में शुरू हुआ था तो नेशनल स्टॉक एक्सचेंज की खोज १९९२ में की गयी थी और उसमे व्यापर १९९४ में प्रराम्भित हुआ था |
BSE और NSE दोनों अलग एक्सचेंजेस है मगर दोनों का कम करने का तरीका, मार्केट अवधि और समजोता पद्धति, इत्यादी एक ही तरह की है | BSE  में लगभग ४७०० कंपनिया सूचीबद्ध है तो उसका प्रतिद्वंद्वी NSE में लगभग १२०० कंपनिया मै व्यापार होता है | BSE की मुख्य ५०० कंपनियो में मार्केट का लगभग ९०% पूंजीकरण शामिल है तो बाकि १०% शेयर कम अदयातन मात्रा ( वॉल्यूम) से ट्रेड होते है |
How stock exchange works

शेयर बाज़ारो की कार्यप्रणाली

शेयर बाज़ार में कंपनिया अपने शेयर बेच कर अपना व्यापार बढ़ाने वा आगे ले जाने के लिए पूंजी इकठ्ठी करने का काम करतीं है | अधिकतम कंपनिया यही रास्ता चुनती है औए उनके शेयर प्राथमिक सार्वजानिक प्रस्ताव (IPO ) के द्वारा बाज़ार में सामान्य जनता को बेचती है व उनसे पूंजी एकत्रित करती है | कर्ज लेकर उसपे अधिक ब्याज देने के बजाय कंपनिया के लिए आईपीओ का रास्ता सीधा और सरल होता है | कभी कभी अपना कर्ज कम करने के लिए भी कंपनिया आईपीओ या FPO ( अनुगामी सार्वजनिक प्रस्ताव ) बाजारों में लाती है | जो लोग कम्पनीयों के शेयर खरीदते है वो उस कंपनीके हिस्सेदार बन जाते है | अगर कम्पनी लाभ करती है तो उन्हें लाभांश भी मिलता है व उसके वजह से उनके शेयर के भाव भी बढ़ता है |
एक बार कंपनी लिस्ट हो जाती है तो उसके शेयर्स में व्यपार प्रारभित हो जाता है | मार्केट खुलने और बंद होने के बिच में आप जाहे जितनी बार उसमे खरीद वा बिक्री कर सकते है | मार्केट में व्यापार के लिए ख़रीददार और विक्रेता दो नो की जरुरत होती है | दोनों में जो सहमती से व्यापार होता है उसे “सौदा” कहते है | मार्केट में सौदे लगातर मांग और आपूर्ति के वजह से, मार्केट समाचार और मार्केट की मनोदशा की वजह से अलग अलग भाव पे होते है, उसी वजह से हम शेयर के भावो में चढ़ और उतार महसूस करते है |
शेयर बाज़ार दिन ब दिन आत्याधिक जटिल बनते जा रहे है मगर उनमे व्यापार करना उतनाही सरल होते जा रहा है | सरल शब्दों में शेयर बाज़ार में कंपनी के शेयर्स की खरीद- बिक्री होती है |
History of stock exchange in India

भारतीय शेयर बाज़ार का इतिहास

भारत में प्रथम संघटित शेयर बाज़ार सन १८७५ में मुंबई में शुरू हुआ था जो की एशिया का सबसे पुराना शेयर बाज़ार है | १८९४ में अहमदाबाद मे कपडा मिलो के शेयर ट्रेडिंग के लिए विनिमय केंद शुरू किया गया | १९०८ में कलकत्ता स्टॉक एक्सचेंज जुट व संबंधित व्यापार के लिए शुरू किया | मद्रास स्टॉक एक्सचेंज १९२० में स्तापित किया गया | भारत में लगभग २४ स्टॉक एक्सचेंज थे उसमे से २१ क्षेत्रीय व्पापार बढ़ाने के लिए शुरू किये गए | सुधार प्रणाली द्वारा २ मुख्य एक्सचेंज अस्तित्व में आये वो थे नॅशनल स्टॉक एक्सचेंज (NSE) और ओवर द काउंटर एक्सचेंज ऑफ़ इंडिया (OICEI) जिनमे राष्ट्रव्यापी व्यापार होता है |
स्टॉक एक्सचेंज मुख्यतः गवर्निंग बोर्ड व कार्यकारी मुख्यो द्वारा चलाये व शासित किये जाते है | वित् मंत्रालय उन्हें अधिनियमित और नियंत्रित करता है | सरकार ने अप्रैल १९८८ में सेबी की स्थापना की जो एक मार्केट रेगुलेटर है व शेयर व्यापार उद्योग को अधिनियमित व विकसित करने का भी काम करता है |
Stock market history

शेयर बाजारों का वैश्विक इतिहास

१२वी शताब्दी में फ्रांस में राजाओं के वफादार व्यक्ति कृषि समुदायों के कर्ज का प्रबंधन व नियमन करते थे | यही व्यक्ति कर्ज का व्यापार स्वरुप लेनदेन की करते थे तो इस प्रकार वे दुनिया के प्रथम दलाल कहलाते हे |
एक आख्यायिका ये भी के बेल्जियम के ब्रुज शहर में कमोडिटी व्यापारी इक व्यक्ति जिसका नाम वैन डे बुर्जे था उसके घर में मीटिंग के लिए इकठा होते थे जो जगह १४०९ में “बुर्जे बौर्से “ के नामसे जानी गयी | उसके बाद इसी तरह की मीटिंग बेल्जियम के अन्तवेर्प शहर में हुई जहा उस वक्त के सबसे ज्यादा व्यापारी रहा करते थे और वो जगह कमोडिटी व्यापार करने की जगह बन गयी | यह खबर आसपास के शहरों व राज्यों में फ़ैल गयी व इसी तरह बेउर्जें की स्थापना हुई |
13 वी शताब्दी में वैटिकन बैंकर्स सरकारी सिक्योरिटीज में व्यापार करते थे | १३५१ में सरकार ने सरकारी फंड्स की कीमतों को गिरनेवाली अफवाहों को गैर क़ानूनी घोषित किया | १४ वी शताब्दी में पिसा, जेनोआ, वेरोना और फ्लोरेंस के बैंकर्स ने सरकारी सिक्योरिटीज में ट्रेडिंग सुरु की | ये इस लिए संभव हो पाया क्योकि यह शहर और राज्यो पर राजा का प्रभाव नहीं था, इन्हे जनपरिषद चलते थे | मार्केट में शेयर उतारने वाली सबसी पहेली कंपनिया इटालियन थी | यही परमपरा इंग्लैंड और बाकि देशो में १६ वी सदी तक फ़ैल चुकी थी |
१६०२ में डच ईस्ट इंडिया कंपनी पहेली जॉइंट स्टॉक कंपनी थी जिसने फिक्स कैपिटल शेयर दिए थे उसी वजह से इन शेयर्स में अलग अलग एक्सचेंजों में ट्रेडिंग मुमकिन थी | इसके तुरंत बाद एम्स्टर्डम एक्सचेंज में आप्शन और डेरिवेटिव्स की ट्रेडिंग की सुरुवात हुई | डच ट्रेडर्स ही थे जिन्होंने “ शोर्ट सेलिंग” की इजाद की थी जिसे बाद में १६१० में प्रतिबंधित घोषित कर दिया था | अब दुनिया हर एक विकसित और विकसनशील देशों वास्तव में शेयर मर्केट्स है | दुनिया के सबसे बड़े मार्केट में अमिरीकी शेयर बाज़ार, UK का शेयर बाज़ार, जापान, भारत , चीन , कनाडा और जर्मनी के शेयर बाज़ार शामिल है |
History of the American stock market

अमिरीकी शेयर बाज़ार का इतिहास

अमेरिकन स्टॉक एक्सचेंज ( AMEX ) की शुरुवात सन १८०० में हुई थी | १९२१ थक इस एक्सचेंज को “कर्ब एक्सचेंज” से नाम से भी जाना जाता रहा है | इसका अधिकारिक निर्माण समय १९२१ ही पकड़ा जाता है क्योकि इसी साल इसका स्थान्तरण ट्रिनिटी चर्च के करीब नए आवास में हुआ था | मगर ये आधिकारिक तरह अमिरीकी शेयर बाज़ार १९५३ में ही घोषित हुआ | नोव्हेंबर १९९८ में इस एक्सचेंज का विलय नेशनल एसोसिएशन ऑफ़ सिक्योरिटीज डीलर्स से होकर “नैस्डेक-एमेक्स एक्सचेंज” की सुरुवात हुई |
ऑक्टोबर २००८ में अमिरीकी स्टॉक एक्सचेंज का अधिग्रहण NYSE euronext ने किया | तब से धीरे धीरे एमेक्स का कम और डाटा सब NYSE में परिवर्तित किया गया और एमेक्स को बंद कर दिया गया | जनवरी २००९ से इस एक्सचेंज का अधीकारिक नामकरण NYSE amex हो गया |

Dollar, stocks firm as 2017 trading starts in earnest

LONDON, Jan 3- Upbeat data from China helped lift global markets as 2017 trading started in earnest on Tuesday, with the dollar notching its biggest gain in three weeks, oil on a tear and European stocks setting a one-year high.

Base metal prices and bond yields also advanced, as the better-than-expected factory growth in China dovetailed with higher inflation data in Europe to give investors a solid start to the new year.

Much of Europe had been open on Monday but it was the first day back for its biggest stock market, Britain's FTSE 100 , and it wasted no time in hitting a new record high of 7,196 points with a 0.7 gain.

Dollar, stocks firm

Germany's DAX and France's CAC 40 climbed too and among individual stock movers, Italian banks were back amongst the top risers, with newly-merged Banco BPM up 4.6 percent on its second day of trading.

Commodity-linked stocks jumped 1.3 percent as oil and metals prices cheered the China data that had showed output from the country's giant manufacturing sector reaching a near six-year high.

It bolstered the 'reflation' theme that dominated the latter stages of 2016 and helped get currency and bond markets back in their pre-break rhythm after a mixed recent run.

The U.S. dollar racked up its biggest rise in almost three weeks against a basket of the world's other major currencies to leave it just 1 percent off December's 14-year high.

Benchmark European government bond yields also tacked 5-8 basis points higher as the first inflation readings out Germany and in France pointed to a higher euro zone figure which is due on Wednesday.

Long-term inflation expectations in the euro zone, measured by the five-year, five-year forward rate, are near their highest levels in more than a year and close to the ECB's near 2 percent target, as the central bank prepares to pare back the pace of its money-printing scheme.

"Until just a few weeks ago, the general consensus was that upside inflation risks were very limited however... the inflation rate scheduled to be published today is likely to reveal a significant uplift," said DZ Bank strategist Birgit Figge.

CHINA CHANGES

In commodities, oil prices jumped over 2 percent in Europe as the China data fed into a market that is being buoyed by hopes a deal including OPEC and non-OPEC producer countries will drain the recent global supply glut.

Oil was the world's best-performing major asset class in 2016, with a gain of around 50 percent and global benchmark Brent was up 2.7 percent at $58.31 by 0945 GMT as U.S. crude topped $55 a barrel.

"Markets will be looking for anecdotal evidence for production cuts," Ric Spooner, chief market analyst at CMC Markets said.

"The most likely scenario is OPEC and non-OPEC member countries will be committed to the deal, especially in early stages."

 

Overnight in Asia, MSCI's broadest index of Asia-Pacific shares rose 0.6 percent as most regional markets reopened after the New Year holiday although Japan's Nikkei was still closed.

Australian shares were the best performers in the region, closing up 1.2 percent. Hong Kong's Hang Seng rose 0.7 percent while in China, both the CSI 300 index and the Shanghai Composite climbed 1 percent.

China was Asia's worst performing major stock market in 2016 with a 11.3 percent loss in its worst year in five.

 

"A year ago, the Chinese markets kept everyone on their toes," said Jingyi Pan, market strategist at IG in Singapore, said following the China data referring to market turmoil that engulfed global investors last January.

"I don't think that we will see a repeat given that the global economy has a better foothold compared to a year ago," Pan said.

The positive Chinese news also lifted the Australian dollar, which added 0.6 percent to $0.7230, while gold sagged, with the precious metal dropping 0.3 percent to $1,148 an ounce.

Back in Europe, the pick ups in Germany and French inflation came on the heels of data on Monday showing manufacturers ramped up activity at the fastest pace in more than five years in December.

The positive numbers failed to shake the euro out of its doldrums, however, with the common currency slipping 0.3 percent to $1.0426.

 

Investors were also keeping an eye on the Chinese yuan after the central bank nearly doubled the number of foreign currencies in a basket used to set the renminbi's value.

Starting on Jan. 1, the number of currencies in the CFETS basket increased to 24 from 13, with new entrants including the Korean won, the South African rand and the Mexican peso. [nL4N1EO2II

The country's foreign exchange regulator also said it would step up scrutiny of individuals' foreign currency purchases and strengthen punishment for illegal outflows, although the $50,000 annual individual quota will remain unchanged.

The renminbi posted its biggest annual loss since 1994 last year, with the dollar up almost 7 percent versus the Chinese currency.

 

In its first fix since the changes, the Chinese central bank set the official yuan midpoint at 6.9498 per dollar on Tuesday, compared with the previous close of 6.9467.

The dollar against a basket of six major currencies, (weighted geometric mean of the dollar's value compared with 6 other major currencies which are: the euro at 57.6 percent weight, Japanese yen 13.6 percent, Pound sterling 11.9 percent, Canadian dollar 9.1 percent weight, Swedish krona 4.2 percent and Swiss franc 3.6 percent. (Additional reporting by John Geddie and Christopher Johnson in London; Editing by Raissa Kasolowsky)

bitcoin Breaks $1,000 level as 2017 start

pymnts-Given the past few days, it seems like 2017 could be a banner year for bitcoin. Bitcoin broke past $1,000 in value on its first day of trading in 2017. This marks the first time in three years that the cryptocurrency has been so valuable. At the time of writing, the price of bitcoin sat at $1,027.05. These figures are the highest bitcoin has been since its $1,216.70 peak in 2013, just weeks before the Japanese bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox collapsed.

Bitcoin Breaks $1,000

All told, bitcoin’s value grew over 100 percent in 2016. Bitcoin has been rising steadily upward since about August 2015 from a low of just over $220. Recently, bitcoin has grown dramatically, upping its value about 30 percent over the last month and about 50 percent over the last three months. This overall growth is somewhat uncharacteristic of bitcoin’s historically rapid fluctuations.

 

The recent price rise has many bitcoin traders feeling optimistic and anticipating anywhere from a value of $1,400 all the way up to $3,000 by the end of 2017.

Worldwide trends toward bitcoin adoption and legitimization are likely at least somewhat responsible for the recent price increase. Switzerland has become a highly bitcoin-friendly nation as of late with FINMA’s plans to clarify regulation, railway ticketing systems’ recent adoption of bitcoin ATM functionality, and Ernst & Young’s Switzerland office adding a publicly accessible bitcoin ATM.

 

Bitcoin adoption has gained additional momentum in the U.S., and companies like KeepKey have been working to create more secure storage products for cryptocurrency. Populations in India and Venezuela have both seen increased interest in cryptocurrency during their respective currency regulation and inflation issues.

Commenting on bitcoin, Bobby Sharp, cofounder and CMO of Coinsource, the largest network of bitcoin ATMs in the United States, said it best: “It’s really exciting to be a part of this industry. The total market cap of all outstanding bitcoin right now is over $12.5 billion. In January 2016, it was at $6.5 billion, and in January 2015, it was at $3.5 billion — that graph is pretty sexy. It’ll be interesting to see what happens when that market cap doubles again next year.”

happy new year 2017

happy new year 2017

Maybe this New Year is going to be the one that fulfills

all your dreams and so start it with a joyful

and a vibrant soul!

Here’s wishing you a prosperous new year!

MCX Commodity Market holidays 2017

MCX Commodity Market holidays 2017

MCX Commodity market holidays list 2017

Sr.No

Holidays

Date

Day

Morning Session

Evening Session*

1

New Year’s Day

01-Jan-17

Sunday

Closed

Closed

2

Republic Day

26-Jan-17

Thursday

Closed

Closed

3

Mahashivratri

24-Feb-17

Friday

Closed

Open

4

Holi (2nd Day)

13-Mar-17

Monday

Closed

Open

5

Good Friday

14-Apr-17

Friday

Closed

Closed

 

Ambedkar Jayanti

14-Apr-17

Friday

Closed

Open

6

Ram Navami

04-Apr-17

Tuesday

Closed

Open

7

Mahavir Jayanti

09-Apr-17

Sunday

Closed

Open

8

Maharashtra Day

01-May-17

Monday

Closed

Closed

9

Buddha Poornima

10-May-17

Wednesday

Closed

Closed

10

Ramzan Id

26-June-17

Monday

Closed

Open

11

Independence Day

15-Aug-17

Tuesday

Closed

Closed

12

Ganesh Chaturthi

25-Aug-17

Friday

Closed

Open

13

Bakri Id

02-Sep-17

Saturday

Closed

Open

14

Gandhi Jayanti

02-Oct-17

Monday

Closed

Closed

15

Dassera

30-Sep-17

Saturday

Closed

Open

16

Moharum

01-Oct-17

Sunday

Closed

Open

17

Diwali – Lakshmi Puja

19-Oct-17

Thursday

Closed

Open**

18

Diwali – Balipratipada

20-Oct-17

Friday

Closed

Open

19

Guru Nanak Jayanti

04-Nov-17

Saturday

Closed

Open

20

Id-E-Milad

30-Nov-17

Thursday

Closed

Open

21

Christmas

25-Dec-17

Monday

Closed

Closed

 

  • Morning session – 10:00 AM to 05:00 PM Evening session – 05:00 PM to 11:30/11:55 PM

 

  • 5:00 PM to 9:00 PM/9:30 PM for Internationally linked Agricultural commodities

 

  • Timings for Muhurat trading shall be notified by the exchange subsequently.

Currency Market holidays 2017

Currency Market holidays

nse CDS market holidays list 2017

Sr. No

Holidays

Date

Day

1

Republic Day

January 26, 2017

Thursday

2

Mahashivratri

February 24, 2017

Friday

3

Holi

March 13, 2017

Monday

4

Ram Navami

April 04, 2017

Tuesday

5

Good Friday

April 14, 2017

Friday

 

Dr.Baba Saheb Ambedkar Jayanti

April 14, 2017

Friday

6

Maharashtra Day

May 01, 2017

Monday

7

Id-Ul-Fitr (Ramzan Id)

June 26, 2017

Monday

8

Independence Day

August 15, 2017

Tuesday

9

Ganesh Chaturthi

August 25, 2017

Friday

10

Mahatama Gandhi Jayanti

October 02, 2017

Monday

11

Diwali-Laxmi Pujan*

October 19, 2017

Thursday

12

Diwali-Balipratipada

October 20, 2017

Friday

13

Christmas

December 25, 2017

Monday

*Muhurat Trading will be conducted on Thursday, October 19, 2017 (Diwali- Laxmi Pujan).

 

Timings for Muhurat Trading will be notified by the exchange subsequently.

 

 

Sr.No

Holidays

Date

Day

1

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Jayanti

February 19, 2017

Sunday

2

Annual Bank Closing

April 01, 2017

Saturday

3

Gudhi Padwa

March 28, 2017

Tuesday

4

Parsi New Year

August 17, 2017

Thursday

5

Id-e-Milad

December 1, 2017

Thursday

Official holiday calendar for NSE. Official holiday calendar for BSE.

nse holidays 2017

nse holidays 2017

nse market holidays list 2017

Sr. No

Holidays

Date

Day

1

Republic Day

January 26, 2017

Thursday

2

Mahashivratri

February 24, 2017

Friday

3

Holi

March 13, 2017

Monday

4

Ram Navami

April 04, 2017

Tuesday

5

Good Friday

April 14, 2017

Friday

 

Dr.Baba Saheb Ambedkar Jayanti

April 14, 2017

Friday

6

Maharashtra Day

May 01, 2017

Monday

7

Id-Ul-Fitr (Ramzan Id)

June 26, 2017

Monday

8

Independence Day

August 15, 2017

Tuesday

9

Ganesh Chaturthi

August 25, 2017

Friday

10

Mahatama Gandhi Jayanti

October 02, 2017

Monday

11

Diwali-Laxmi Pujan*

October 19, 2017

Thursday

12

Diwali-Balipratipada

October 20, 2017

Friday

13

Christmas

December 25, 2017

Monday

*Muhurat Trading will be conducted on Thursday, October 19, 2017 (Diwali- Laxmi Pujan).

Timings for Muhurat Trading will be notified by the exchange subsequently.

Holidays On Saturday/Sunday

Sr. No

Holidays

Date

Day

1

Mahavir Jayanti

April 09, 2017

Sunday

2

Bakri ID

September 02, 2017

Saturday

3

Dasera

September 30, 2017

Saturday

4

Moharram

October 01, 2017

Sunday

5

Gurunanak Jayanti

November 04, 2017

Saturday

Wall Street looked set to open little changed on Thursday

reuters-Wall Street looked set to open little changed on Thursday, a day after the S&P 500 index suffered its biggest fall in two months, putting a damper on a post-election rally.

A report showed the number of Americans applying for jobless claims fell by 10,000 to 265,000 last week, indicating sustained strength in the labor market.

U.S. equities had been enjoying a rally since the presidential election in November on bets that Donald Trump would introduce tax cuts, deregulation and higher infrastructure spending that would spur economic growth.

Wall Street little changed

The near two-month rally has seen the three main Wall Street indexes rack up double-digit percentage gains, but has left some market participants nervous about a potential correction.

The S&P 500 index suffered its biggest one-day percentage drop on Wednesday, following weak housing data and losses in the technology sector. The triple-digit loss on the Dow pulled it further away from its march toward 20,000.

"The markets are trading in a full-blown holiday mood, with little direction on either side of the equation," Peter Cardillo, chief market economist at New York's First Standard Financial wrote in a note.

Dow e-minis 1YMc1 were up 3 points, or 0.02 percent at 8:30 a.m. ET, with 15,774 contracts changing hands.

S&P 500 e-minis ESc1 were up 1.5 points, or 0.07 percent, with 73,460 contracts traded.

Nasdaq 100 e-minis NQc1 were up 1.25 points, or 0.03 percent, on volume of 12,695 contracts.

The dollar index .DXY fell 0.37 percent on Thursday after a sharp rise this month.

U.S. crude prices were off 0.15 percent after data showed a surprise rise in U.S. inventories. [O/R]

Nvidia's (NVDA.O) shares fell nearly 3 percent to $106.06 in heavy premarket trading, setting the stock up for a second straight day of losses after short-seller Citron Research tweeted that the chipmaker's stock could fall to $90 in 2017.

Shares of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD.O), Nvidia's rival, were off 2.6 percent.

Cempra (CEMP.O) dropped 46.7 percent to $3.25 after the drug developer said the U.S. Food and Drug Administration rejected its antibiotic treatment for pneumonia.

Oil steady as rise in U.S. inventory slows

LONDON (Reuters) - Oil prices steadied on Thursday after a surprise increase in U.S. inventories helped stall an upward trend that has pushed global crude benchmarks to their highest levels since July last year.

U.S. light crude was down 5 cents at $54.01 by 1320 GMT (8:20 a.m.), while North Sea Brent crude was up 25 cents at $56.47 a barrel.

Traded volumes were thin with many investors away for year-end holidays, although the expiry of the front-month February ICE Brent contract on Thursday could generate some activity.

U.S. inventory slows

Both crude oil benchmarks have made big gains this month since OPEC and other producers agreed to curb production in an attempt to balance an over-supplied fuel market.

"The market is in good shape although it might fail to make significant advances this year," said analyst Tamas Varga at London brokerage PVM Oil Associates. "If that is the case the uptrend should continue in early January."

"Either way, the odds are still on higher numbers."

Data released by industry group the American Petroleum Institute (API) late on Wednesday showed a 4.2 million barrel increase in U.S. crude stocks in the week to Dec. 23. {API/S]

Analysts polled by Reuters before the report had forecast on average that inventories would decline by 2.1 million barrels. (EIA/S)

 

But the overall trend appeared to be upwards with oil producers committed to agreed output cuts.

A committee of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and non-OPEC producers will meet in Vienna on Jan. 21-22 to discuss compliance with the production agreement, Kuwaiti oil minister Essam Al-Marzouq told state news agency KUNA. [nL5N1EN2AG]

"Brent will be ... positively impacted by the OPEC and non-OPEC cuts should the agreed reductions be largely adhered to over the next six months," said Philips Futures' investment analyst Jonathan Chan.

 

He said the market was awaiting inventory data from the U.S. Department of Energy later on Thursday to see if official figures confirmed Wednesday's API report.

"Should there be a less-than-expected drawdown or a more-than-expected surplus, oil prices may be in for a downward reversal due to the high concentration in speculative net long positions."

US stocks headed for big gains in 2016

AP-In a year with no shortage of surprises and stomach-churning turns in the market, stock investors can feel pretty good about 2016.

Wall Street repeatedly bounced back from steep slumps, including the worst start to any year for stocks, the second correction for the market in five months and investor fears of a global slowdown. It also weathered plummeting oil prices and the surprising outcomes of Britain's vote to leave the European Union and Donald Trump's U.S. presidential election win.

US stocks headed for big gains in 2016

A turnaround in company earnings growth, more stable oil prices, a steadily improving U.S. economy and job market all helped keep the market on an upward trajectory. More recently, investor optimism that the Republican election sweep will usher in a bevy of business-friendly policies spurred the market to new heights.

"It's been the year of the unlikely happening, but the crazy thing about the unlikely happening is you would expect that to lead to big sell-offs, and we experienced the exact opposite," said J.J. Kinahan, TD Ameritrade's chief strategist. "The more things happened that were unlikely, the more we seemed to rally."

 

As of Tuesday's close, the Standard & Poor's 500 index, the broadest measure of the stock market, was on track to end the year with a gain of 11 percent after an essentially flat finish in 2015. Including dividends, the total return was 13.4 percent. That means if you invested $1,000 in an S&P 500 index fund at the beginning of the year you'd wind up with $1,134 at the end of the year.

Other major market indexes were also on course to post solid gains. The Dow Jones industrial average was headed for a gain of 14.5 percent, a surge that had the 30-company average flirting with crossing the 20,000 mark. The Nasdaq composite was on track for an 9.6 percent gain.

Small-company stocks trounced the rest of the market, however, especially since the election. The Russell 2000 index soared more than 21 percent in 2016.

Investors anticipate that smaller companies will benefit more from an improving U.S. economy than their larger rivals because they tend to do far more of their business domestically. They also have fewer ways to dodge taxes through overseas subsidiaries, so they'll have more to gain if corporate taxes go down, and they'll also have less to lose if trade frictions flare up.

For the most part, markets overseas also fared better than in 2015.

In Europe, Britain's market was headed for a 13.2 percent gain, despite jitters that rocked the market following the summer's "Brexit" vote to leave European Union. Indexes in Germany and France were on their way to gains of 6.8 percent and 4.6 percent, respectively. Japan's Nikkei was on track to eke out a gain of 1.8 percent, and Hong Kong's benchmark index was down 1.5 percent.

 

Few anticipated the kinds of gains for U.S. stocks this year in January, when the market kicked of the year in a deep slump that knocked the Dow, Nasdaq and S&P 500 into a correction, or a drop of 10 percent or more from their recent peaks. For the S&P 500, it was the second correction in five months.

Fear that an economic slump in China could spark a global economic slowdown and alarm as the price of crude oil fell below $30 a barrel to its lowest level in 12 years triggered the market slide. Weak U.S. economic data didn't help.

The downturn was a surprise to many investors. Few expected another market correction so soon, and the Federal Reserve's move in December 2015 to raise interest rates for the first time in nearly 10 years signaled to many that the U.S. economy was healthy.

By the end of March, the market had started to regain its footing. By April, it recouped its losses and continued to mostly head higher. Then, toward the end of June, investors got blindsided by the Brexit vote. That dragged the market sharply lower and sent investors piling into U.S. bonds.

The slide lasted only a couple of days, and once again the market headed mostly higher.

Throughout the summer and into early fall, stocks rode an encouraging wave of developments: The U.S. job market continued to post strong monthly gains. Consumer confidence strengthened. More companies began to report better earnings and revenue for the third quarter, snapping a losing streak of five quarters for S&P 500 companies, according to S&P Global.

 

 

And crude oil prices stabilized, holding above $50. An agreement by OPEC and other major oil-producing nations to cut production next year in an effort to mitigate a glut in global supplies helped support energy prices. U.S. benchmark crude remains far lower than it was in mid-2014, when it topped $100 a barrel.

The market jitters returned as the race between Trump and Hillary Clinton began to tighten, leading to a nine-day slump for stocks ahead of Election Day.

Wall Street had largely seen Clinton as more likely to maintain the status quo, while viewing Trump's polices as less clear. The billionaire's surprise win initially set off a sharp sell-off in Asian markets, signaling more pain for U.S. investors. But the opposite happened.

Global financial markets soon steadied and U.S. stocks kicked off a rally that extended well into December, driving the major U.S. stock indexes to record highs.

Investors are now betting that Trump and a Republican-controlled Congress will have a clear pathway to boost infrastructure spending, cut taxes and relax regulations that affect energy, finance and other businesses.

That agenda has flipped investors' priorities since the election away from defensive assets like bonds, utilities and phone companies, which traders had favored for much of this year, to financial, industrial and small-cap stocks.

It's also increased expectations of higher inflation and interest rates next year, which could make some fixed-income investments like bonds, less attractive.

The anticipation of higher interest rates led to a sell-off in bonds since the election that sent bond prices lower and drove up the yield on the 10-year Treasury note to the highest level in more than two years. The yield, which is used to set interest rates on many kinds of loans including mortgages, bottomed out at 1.36 percent in July and went as high as 2.60 percent in mid-December.

The move away from bonds, utilities and other safe-play assets is likely to continue as long as investors believe that Trump's economic policies will lead to economic growth and usher in higher interest rates.

"The investment landscape has changed due largely to the election," said Terry Sandven, chief equity strategist at U.S. Bank Wealth Management. "We're set up for equities."

December also saw the Federal Reserve boost its interest rate by a quarter-point. The central bank also signaled that it could begin to gradually raise interest rates as employment and inflation increase.

 

 

Even with the gains this year, market strategists say the current bull market, now in its seventh year, should continue, as long as company earnings continue to improve.

"As you look at 2017, the market is not cheap, so earnings have to grow, and they should grow," said David Chalupnik, head of equities for Nuveen Asset Management. "We have a year and a half to two years of the bull market left."