Charts present an arrangement of price over a set timeframe, which can range from minutes to years. There is a variety of price charts, typically prices plotted on the y-axis (vertical axis) and time on the x-axis (horizontal axis). Technical indicators are usually plotted below of price charts. On timeframe basis, the common chart is 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, half-hourly, hourly, 4 hourly, daily, weekly and monthly. Normally, daily and intraday charts are used to study short-term price movements, and longer time periods – such as weeks and months – are used to evaluate long-term trends. 5 and 10 min charts are helpful for market scalpers. 15 min to daily charts is significant for day and short term traders. While weekly to yearly charts are used by swing traders and investors. On price plotting style basis, charts are classified as line, bar, candlestick, and point and figure. These are major chart types although there are Figure 1 nifty future line chart The line chart is the simplest of the all the charts. A simple line chart draws a line from one price to the next price. Mostly price used is the closing price of the security. But one can use high, low or open prices as well. When looped together with a line, it reveals the general price movement over a period of time. Line charts reflect the underlying trend of prices but trading with line chart will not be so easy. Figure 2 nifty future OHLC chart In the old days, the common type of chart used was the bar chart. Where each bar represents one point in time. Though a bar typically represents one day, bar charts can be used to show longer periods, where one bar might represent an entire week or month. In bar charts, each bar must show the high, low and closing prices for the security being studied. The top of the vertical line indicates the highest price a security traded at during the day, and the bottom represents the lowest price. The closing price is displayed on the right side of the bar, and the opening price is shown on the left side of the bar. Bar chart patterns are mostly used by traders and technical analysts. Figure 3 nifty future candlestick chart Nowadays, Candlestick charts are more common and widely used by traders and freely available on all charting platforms. These are like bar charts, but they use a wider bar. Candlesticks always show the open, close, high and low prices. In colors, if the open is greater than the close, the candlestick is red, and if it’s lower than the close, the bar is green. While in black and white, hollow candles are shows positive closing and black candles means negative closing. The chart representing prices looks like a candlestick, with a thick ‘body’ and usually, a line extending above and below it, called the upper shadow and lower shadow, respectively. The top of the upper shadow represents the high price while the bottom of the lower shadow represents the low price. Patterns are formed both by the body and the shadows. Candlestick patterns are most useful over short periods of time, and mostly have significance at the top of an uptrend or the bottom of a downtrend, when the patterns most often signify a reversal of the trend. Figure 4 Nifty future P&F chart Point and figure charting is unique in that it does not plot price against time as all other techniques do. Instead, it plots price against changes in direction by plotting a column of Xs as the price rises and a column of Os as the price falls. Instead of making a new X or O symbol based on time, only price movements that are considered significant are plotted on the graph. As long as the price continues to move in the same direction, additional Xs or O’s will be plotted on the price chart. For example, if prices continue to increase over a span of three time periods (the most common setting for P&F charts), three Xs will appear on top of each other in a vertical line. If in the fourth time period, the price declines significantly, an O will appear in a vertical line next to the line of Xs. professionals believe point and figure charts give clearer pictures of price trends by clearing out market noise., but there are rarely used and only used by experts. Those are Renko charts, Heikin-Ashi, equivolume, CandleVolume, Kagi charts, Three Line Break Charts, etc.
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